srijeda, rujan 17, 2014

Skin Deep Tattoo Magazine, No 80, January 2002


Text and pictures: Michael Laukien

Travelin´ Mick Official Website


Bosnia and Herzegovina has always been an area of conflict between east and west. Though inhabited by Slavic peoples, 400 years of Turkish rule left its traces in culture and language. One part of the population converted to Islam, the rest is comprised of Croatian-catholic and Serbian- Ortodox Christians.

After a turbulent history, when Austria Venice and the Ottoman Empire were constantly fighting over the Balkans, communist Yugoslavia was founded after World War II, it contained Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenija, Macedonia and Montenegro until this artifical state crumbled to pieces in the early 90s. Only six months after Bosnia and Herzegovina had declared its independence in 1991, the Serbian part of the government pulled out and started at war against Croat-Muslim aliance. Sarajevo, the capital, was under siege of the Serbian-dominated army for three years and, through permanent shelling, reduced to a heap of rubble. More then 10.000 people died here alone. All three warring parties were fighting over territory in this rough and montainous land. Indescridable cruelties were committed on all sides and the country was destroyed to such a degree that, in some areas, only ruins and mine fields were left. Hundreds of thousends died and forty percent of the population, approximately two million people, were driven out and thereby became refugees. Technically the Dayton accord left Bosnia and Herzegovina as one country, in reality it is now divided intp two territories of equal size the Croat-Muslim Federation and the Serbian Republic of Bosnia. To this day enormous tension remains and hardly anyone ever dares cross the border. Relative peace is guaranted by 34.000 NATO troops of the international SFOR force, stationed all over the country. Despite considerable reconstruction being under way, poverty and restement between the warring parties is abundant. Catholic Croats contribute only one sixth of the population, but dominate economically especially in the southern part of the country.

Traditional tattoos to us are usually the simple but expressive marks that have been inked into skin of seafaring men in harbours all around the globe or the tattoos of the Polynesian islands witch saw an unexpected revival during the last decade. But hardly anyone knows that, not far from the very heart of Europe, a tattoo tradition exists which reaches back at least a few hundred years and now, at this particular moment in time, is about to disappear from the planet.

A trip into war-torn Bosnia and Herzegovina, started merely on account of a wild guess and a photograph more than 100 years old, documents this tradition, literally at the last minute. Until the beginning of World War II the female children of the Croatian-Catholics in Bosnia nad Herzegovina were tattoed on their hands, forearms and even their faces. The similarity of the designs - mainly variations of the cross - and of the population structure (Catholic Croats are a minority among Muslims and Ortodox Christians) would, at first glance, suggest a history parallel to the tattoos of the Coptic Christians in Egypt or Armenia: a definition of a common identity against a differing majority; an open confession of faith.

The full truth as I was to find out after intense studies, isn´t that simple. In order to trace these marks, I first had to find them. Was there still anyone alive bearing these tattoos, or has this tradition long since vanished? A question that had to be asked before venturing deep into the Balkan mountains. But my friends Miroslav of Tattoo Tomas in Erlangen (Germany) and Zele of Tattoo Zagreb (Croatia) could help out: “Oh, yes, our grandparents were tattooed. We never took any notice, because everybody had them. Some of them should be alive still.” So at least it was worth trying…

Field research in Bosnia isn´t easy. In addition to the language barrier and an infrastructure that still leaves much to be desired, a large proportion of the population is uprooted expelled to different villages, regions or even countries. An understandable amount of mistrust is shown towards the stranger, especially someone asking about their religious believes and customs. Only a few years ago one´s faith could mean the difference between life and death here! But on the other hand there´s the traditional hospitality of the people who had to endure so much. Thankful for an open ear, endless stories gush out of them once the trust is gained. One old man, living on hih own in his completely destroyed village, only let us go after the one-litre bottle of Slivovitz (the local moonshine) was drained to the very bottom together.

The first day at searching in the market places around Sarajevo was disappointing. Nobody knew about tattooed grannies in the area. Finally a police commander, who we asked for directions could help out. His own grandmother living next door is tattooed! Shyly she peeks around the corner, dressed in her traditional costume made from hemp, tattoos on hands and forearms visible. Actually she is ashamed of those marks, faded from decades of working in the fields under a scorching sun. Nonetheless she allows her picture to be taken and tells us of the time when she was tattooed as a young girl – 65 years ago!

Following her hints, we were able to search the neighbouring villages, always escorted by a police man, for the last remaining tattooed ladies. Again and again we hear the same stories: The tattoos are ´old´ and ´ugly´ and they always brought trouble to them after World War II. That´s why they usually try to hide them from strangers. In their own anvironment nonetheless, they are taken for granted and pass unnoticed, because everybody was decorated in the same way in their old villages. So, the last existing tribal tattoos in Europe fell into oblivion.

The western world only started to develop an interest in ancient tattoo traditions during the last decade and, at the time, century-old tensions exploded into a cruel war in Balkans. The survivors of the ethnic cleansing were scattered to the four winds. Since the most heavily tattooed Croatian women used to live in areas were Serbs or Muslims dominated – the urge to show group affiliation is biggest in such areas – some of them can be found in refugee camps all over the world, especially in Croatia. Even though almost all Catholic girls (And a few boys) were tattooed until the 1930s, the custom suddenly stopped at the eve of World War II. A whole generation who could have passed down the tradition was eliminated. Those spared had to work hard for their survival, social life in the villages became non-existent. Rural exodus and upcoming socialism that conveyed a system of values in which religion and traditional culture was left no space, wipped out the rest of it.

The youngest of the tattooed women that we could find was born in 1941, but most are in their 70s, 80s or even older. One, over 90 years old who got tattooed around 1920 in Kotor Varos, could easily be the proud bearer of some of the oldest tattoos in the world! Time for the Bosnian and Herzegovinian tattoo is definitely running out now. Within a few years this tradition will have passed away with the last of its upholders. There is no hope for a revival in today´s secular society.

Traditional tattooing was done with ordinary sewing needles and a self-mixed ink. Soot from certain types of woods was mixed with mother´s milk, honey, spit or spring water. This concoction was covered and left alone for a few days to get a stronger pigment through evaporation. Usually all tattoos were done on one sigle day during the fasting before Easter. Sveti Josip (March 19th) was a sacred holiday in Bosnia and Herzegovina. After visiting church, the tattoos were done at a social get-togheter in a public place. The girls aged about 6 to 16 gathered and tattooed themselves and each other, or in some places were tattooed by older female relatives or even the mid-wife.

First the design was drawn on with the pigment and then retraced with a needle. Every year more elements were added, so that the design could grow over time. Though the process was painful, there always was a lot of balmed with lard (pig fat) and sometimes wrapped in silk paper. The next day it was thoroughly washed and infections only rarely occurred.

The most interesting aspect when looking at traditional tattoos is the question of motivation. Why was it done? Even in neighbouring Croatia, inhabited by Catholics as well, Christian tattooing is virtually unheard of. So, why did the Bosnian and Herzegovinian Catholics do it, when even the bible disapproves of permanent marks on the body? To find this out, we have to take a closer look at the designs themselves. Besides the simple cross (kriz) only the decorated variation, the so-called (jelica) cross, holds clear Christian symbolism and some of those designs can be found in traditional embroidery patterns as well.

The most striking of the non-Christian designs is the (kolo) which got its name from a dance for wich the villagers held each others hands to dance in a circle. This circular design, which sometimes is decorated with lines, dots, pine cones or berries, clearly symbolizes the unity and common identity of family and village. The women usually had it tattooed on the back of the hand or on the forearms. Rarely it can be found on man´s upper arms.


Also derived from everyday life is the fence-design (ograda). This semi-circular design was done on the back of the hand open towards the wrist and often included crosses, stars or a (kolo). It was normaly followed by a tattooed wristband (narukvica), which was always left open on the inside of the wrist, because they didn´t dare tattooing over veins. Another band tattooed lengthwise on the forearm is called (klas). The twig design (grancica), which in a special shape (one twig pointing up, two pointing down) is also called a (jelica), and can be found on forearms togheter with a (kolo). In order to fill up empty spaces – an interesting parallel to western tattoo traditions – stars (zvjezdica), comets (zvijezda prethodnica), suns (sunca) or moons (mjeseci) were used. Obviously most designs are of non-Christian origin and stem from people´s immediate environment, like nature, village and family. What was seen on a daily basis was tattooed in a stylized version. Ciro Truhelka, who in 1896 published in ´Scientific Reports from Bosnia and hercegovina´ the only article so far on traditional tattooing in Bosnia and Hezegovina, sees the origin of their designs as being primeval celtic from the Hallstatt era 2500 years ago. According to him the tradition of tattooing is a pagan ritual that was kept alive in Christian times, but then filled with used in tattooing can be found as reliefs on ancient tombstones, which are seen all over Bosnia and Herzegovina and wich play an important role in local myths and legends. Nonetheless the most visible tattoos – those on the face and fingers – almost exclusively are done as simple crosses. When asked, the tattooees inevitably stress the religious background of their cross tattoos and think of it as a means of dissociation from Muslims. “I never wanted to get married to a Muslim. This was made impossible with the tattoos!”, is a typical answer that hints at the traditional rejection of any kind of body modification by Islam. From the 15th to the 18th century, under Ottoman rule, part of taxation wa to surrender certain boys and girls to the rulers, so they could be pressed into military service or to work as servants for Turkish nobles. Tattoos of a cross on clearly visible places was supposed to prevent a young Bosnian and Hercegovinian girl from ending up in some aga´s harem.

Until very recently, in this unsafe and unstable society, tattoos of initials or whole family names were applied to childern´s forearms to make identification easier of abduction or death. But also universal aspects of motivation can be found. Considering the fact that tattooing is done in public on a special day of the year (March 19th) strongly suggests an initiation ritual that young girls had to go through during puberty. The bonds between friend and relatives were renewed, while the whole village could see how bravely the young girl defied the pain. The verb ´to tattoo´ was unknown and ´to nudge´ was used instead. The more ´colourful´ a young woman was, the stronger and more attractive she was thought of. During weaving and dancing tattooed hands and forearms were the focus of young men´s attention and could be readily admired.

In his article of 1896, Truhelka denied a Christian origin of the Bosnian and Herzegovinian tattoo and pointed at pagan celtic roots. This views is in contrast to the fact that tattoos as sing of group affiliation have had a long tradition amon the Christian minorities in Eastern Europe and the Near East, that goes back to the earliest Christian communities. Christian origin of the tattoos in Bosnia and Herzegovina, where history was written by the contrast of Islam and Christianity, seems logical. Like the Copts in Egypt, Bosnian and Herzegovinian Catholics tried to put down a clearly visible sign of their own ethnic identity to dissociate themselves from surrounding groups that endangered their existence. When this sign of identity changed to a more decorative form, people fell back on traditional local – and therefore celtic – iconography. Without knowing the original meaning, old familiar designs were used on a new media and found their way into tattooing.

tetoviranicovjek @ 12:31 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 2 | Prikaži komentare
petak, rujan 12, 2014
Možda poput nebeskog diska iz Nebre ili Vučedolskog kalendara, ali u vidu tetovaža u koži

Moje skromno mišljenje je da su naši daleki preci bili pažljivi i intenzivni promatrači zvijezda "Starwatchers". Dobro su se razumjeli u astronomiju. Pratili su odnose kretanja sunca, planeta, mjeseca, sjevernjače, zviježđa i kometa. A ono što ih, naše pretke, čini naročito posebnim/jedinstvenim je, tako mislim, to što su svoja zapažanja prenosili i nosili na svojoj koži u vidu tetoviranih simbola koji su predstavljali zviježđa, zvjezdane karte, konstelacije i kalendare. Mislim da su se pomoću tetovaža orjentisali u prostoru i vremenu, promatrajući nebo u odnosu na tetovirane simbole. Mislim da je svaki član zajednice imao određene informacije/ karte tetovirane. To znanje se prenosilo na mlađe generacije. To je tako reći simbolično linearno geometrijsko pismo, koje smo danas skoro u potpunosti zaboravili čitati. Kroz povijest su značenja i svrhe zaboravljeni, Neki od simbola su primili nova značenja. Neki simboli su dodati. To se vidi i iz dualnosti tumačenja. Nekad se za neki simbol kaže da je sunce, zvijezda ili mjesec, a istovremeno se isti simbol tumači kao kršćanski križ ili katolička tetovaža. Za ostale simbole kažemo da su kompleksni ornamentni ukrasi. A kako u sebi često sadrže obično i križiće, smatramo ih katoličkim motivima. Ali ja eto mislim da naši motivi osim religiozne i ukrasne komponente sadrže i astralnu komponentu. Ne treba zaboraviti ni magijsku komponentu, o kojoj također skoro ništa ne znamo.

Branislav Knežević, 11.09.2014

tetoviranicovjek @ 22:03 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0

"Linz Stanley is an American performance artist, actress, and “geek of all trades”.

Lindsay Stanley: "I can't believe it has been a whole week since I did the most spontaneous and bravest thing I've ever done. I finally got tattooed! This tattoo means everything to me, as it's a spiritual representation of my faith, my family, and my heritage. I don't like to talk about all of the crazy details of my personal life.. but I will tell you that I just recently went through the lowest point of my life the past few months. Everything in my life changed - living situation, friends, relationships, my health - everything. I didn't know what to do and I was tired of feeling like there was nothing I could do. Then I started to change my mindset, re-connect with loved ones, dive deeper into my faith, and rely on my family. I realized I was on some sort of crazy spiritual journey to really find myself and restore the confidence that I had once lost. With all of the toxic removed from my life.. doors started to open, dreams started to come true, and I never thought I would even remotely be at the job that I just started at, the amazing relationships with my best friends, and to have my dreams and passions coming to LIFE. I knew I wanted something to represent ME to remind me of EVERYTHING that I am. I came to Julie and Stassi about this idea quite some time ago, and with their guidance, hours of research, and many laughs and debates about "what is x y and z going to think about this", this beautiful and unique piece of art came about. This is a feminine version of a "traditional Croatian tattoo". For those of you who know me, you know how prominent my Croatian heritage is in my life, and how much my beautiful family means to me. This is everything I ever wanted. The top of my tattoo represents the sun (God). The center piece is "fenced" with the Roman Catholic cross in the center, representing the traditional symbol of protection, and having my faith be the center of it. The 3 "fig tree" stems represent my mom, my dad, and myself, and the 5 dots are "stars" that represent those who are closest to me, many who I have lost. "

Neotradicionalni motiv

tetoviranicovjek @ 21:17 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0

NIŠTARIJINI ZAPISI: Osamnaesta murvina priča - Tetovaže

Nogomet nije igra samo za muškarce. 

I ja, mandoseljska murva, volim gledati kad mlađarija trči za loptom, bori se i znoji za pobjedu i nekoliko trenutaka slave ili tuge. Nitko međutim ne pobjeđuje stalno, a i od najboljega se uvijek nađe bolji, pa na kraju sve ispadne pravedno, čak i kad suci krivo presude jer se sve izravna i ispravi njihovom drugom pogreškom u nekoj trećoj utakmici. Jedino što mi se u nogometu ne sviđa su ogromne pare, milijuni koji se vrte i uništavaju igru praveći od nje unosni posao, i napasne tetovaže na igračima, ali mene nitko i ne pita za moje mišljenje. Samo kažem da se zna. 

Prateći nogometno prvenstvo primjetila sam naime da je skoro svaki igrač istetoviran, jedni od glave do pete, drugi po leđima, treći na rukama, četvrti na stražnjici. Ima tu svega i svačega - od troglavih zmajeva, antičkih junaka, opasnih gmizavaca, imena bivših cura do kojekakvih simbola zdravlja, bogatstva i ljepote. 

Od naših loptaša najviše tinte pod kožom ima Mario Mandžukić, ali  se je u Brazilu puno više pisalo o kapetanovoj tetovaži – Darijo Srna uzeo je svoje prezime za motiv crteža i na nozi istetovirao lane, ne znajući da je to plaho stvorenje u zemlji nogometa simbol malo drugačije seksualne orijentacije, pa je, da se  unaprijed obrani od nepoželjnih poziva na romantične večere, morao dati nekoliko intervjua objašnjavajući detaljno što znači njegovo prezime te navodeći da je sretno oženjen i otac obitelji. 

Ostavili su ga Brazilci na miru, ali nije bilo puno koristi. Meksikanci su imali puno  manje šarenila na koži od naših igrača, ali su zato zabili više golova za manje para i ostali nekoliko dana dulje na prvenstvu.  Na kraju su istetovirane germanske ruke dizale zlatni pokal i sve je završilo šareno, veselo i pravedno, jedino je Messi plakao ali on, čini mi se, nema nikakvih crteža po sebi pa me nije previše ni zanimao. 

Ako Messi ipak odluči promijeniti svoj izgled možda bi bilo dobro da navrati u Mandino Selo i nauči kako se tetovira? 

U Mandinu Selu, kao i u drugim krajevima Bosne i Hercegovine i dalmatinske Zagore u kojima žive Hrvati,  tetoviranje je naime tradicionalno, prakticiralo se je stoljećima, a datira vjerojatno od starih Ilira i zadržalo se je, uglavnom na ženskim rukama, sve do početka ovoga milenija u obliku jednostavnog ili pak okvirom ukrašenog Jeličina križa.  (Izvor: 

Nedavno je,  u 103. životnoj godini, umrla najstarija Mandoseljka Iva Šumanović-Mujsa, baka koja je na svojim rukama nosila istetovirane križeve, simbol katolika za  vrijeme turske vladavine crtan po rukama kao znak vjerske pripadnosti i za zaštitu od odvlačenja djece u tuđe krajeve i drugu vjeru. I moja ljubimica, baba Mara Joskanovića, imala je poput Mujse i drugih pripadnica njene generacije, iste takve, plavkaste križeve, na rukama koji su se godinama spojili s kožom pa je bilo teško razlikovati radi li se o venama ili o tetovaži.   

Danas se spomenuti nogometaši i ostali promjene vlastitog izgleda željni momci i cure zapute u nekakav studio, izaberu motiv između volovskih rogova, slomljenog srca ili raspuknutog svemira i puste da im „umjetnici“ oštrim iglicama izbadaju pore i ubrizgavaju kojekave kemikalije pod kožu, plate grdno za nagrđivanje i čekaju da ostare.

 Baš me zanima kako će izgledati svi ti velebni simboli kad se koža smežura, napeti mišići se opuste i na glatkim dijelovima tijela nastanu pregibi od starosti, ali to nije moj problem. Ja sam zadovoljna svojim izgledom. 

Mara, Mujsa i ostale mandoseljske bake i majke tetovirale su svoje ruke kao što rekoh ne zbog uljepšavanja nego radi raspoznavanja, da ih tadašnji vladari ostave na miru, još u dječjoj dobi, prije navršavanja šesnaeste godine života, a tetoviranje se je zvalo „sicanje“. Tom prilikom bi se koža sjeckala nekakvom oštricom, a u otvorene pore bi se ubrizgavao med, ugljen ili majčino mlijeko. Nakon nekoliko dana procedura bi se ponavljala sve dok simbol križa ne bi bio jasno vidljiv i ostao tamo zauvijek – kao znak sigurnosti od otimanja djece. 

Tradicija tetoviranja Hrvata u Bosni i Hercegovini zadržala se je sve do tridesetih godina prošloga stoljeća, tako da u Mandinu Selu još uvijek ima nekoliko starijih žena s plavkastim križevima na rukama, simbolom jednog prošlog vremena i teškog života u strahu.   

Danas takav način obilježavanja pripadnosti određenom narodu ili vjeri nije više potreban, tako da će za nekoliko desetljeća i ta tradicija, poput mnogih drugih, postati dio povijesti mojih Mandoseljana i njihovih baka. 

A tetovaže nogometaša? One su me samo navele na to da se sjetim babe Mare, Mujse i ostalih, meni dragih osoba, kojima su plavo išarane ruke značile slobodu, a ne nekakav izmišljeni simbol. 

Meni svi ti šareni igrači djeluju malo smiješno, ali o ukusima nije dobro raspravljati, pa za kraj samo napominjem da na meni najdražem nogometašu, Ivici Oliću, nisam primijetila ni zmaja, ni sunca, ni duhova, ali sam zato prepoznala njegovu borbenost i upornost – kao da je potomak babe Mujse iz Mandina Sela. 

  Tekst: Blago Vukadin
Foto: Miro Šumanović/ Ivica Šarac
tetoviranicovjek @ 21:15 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 1 | Prikaži komentare
Fotografije: Ivica Jolić

tetoviranicovjek @ 21:08 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0

tetoviranicovjek @ 20:56 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0

Ulov u busu. Rekla je da ju je tata istukao kad se tetovirala ali ima i na drugoj ruci ♡

Blizu 80tak čini mi se ima gospoja, nisam pitala damu za godine, ali kaže da je napravila jer je njena baka imala.

Zabilježila: Maja Krišković, 08.09.2014

tetoviranicovjek @ 20:48 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0
subota, kolovoz 9, 2014

Croatian traditional Tattoo

tetoviranicovjek @ 23:16 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0
"Was so moved when I found this site! My grandma was proud of her Croatian heritage. Even though I was not familiar with these tattoos and their history, I got this done. I love it!" Holly Baumgard

"Aga Pers: Bok ovaj je i moja nova tetovaža, napravljen je bio u Poljskoj u Varšavi u studiju "time4tattoo". I hvala Vama da želite zaštititi hrvatsku tradiciju tetoviranja. Srdačan pozdrav iz Poljske"

tetoviranicovjek @ 23:06 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0
Imam novosti! Pričao sam tati za tetovaže.. On meni od jednom govori.. Moja baba je imala male križiće na svakom prstu osim palca.. Tako je u Ljubuškom... A tako mi i mama govori koja je iz sela između Splita i Imotskog.. Selo pripada Imotskom i zove se Dobranje :))  Pitao sam jesu li križići imali neke ukrase... On govori, ne obicni križići.
Zabilježio: Ivan Kravić, 09.08.2014

tetoviranicovjek @ 22:56 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0
srijeda, srpanj 23, 2014

tetoviranicovjek @ 20:45 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0

Anđa Kalinić 23.12.1938 ( tetovirala je 1939 godinu jer bi tad trebala bit rođena) Čobanica bila sa 13 godina i sama je lijevu ruku istetovirala. Lijevu joj je kuma od sestre. Rođak joj je tetovirao ime i godište. Tetoviralo se za sv.Josipa jer je taj svetac bio veseljak i taj dan nije bila korizma. Taj dan se pjevalo i sa momcima išlo. Tetoviralo se sa lučem (od panja borovog), smoljavo drvo. Sač stave i omotaju čađ pjetlovim perom. To su zamiješali u čaši sa medom i bocali što tanje. Kad su izbocali, zalijepili su papirom koji se zalijepio za kožu i nakon nekog vremena odlijepe papir i kraste se zalijepe gore i na ruci ostane čisto (tetovaža) Rođena u selu Lendići koj Jajca. Živi u Trnavi (selo blizu Đakova) u Slavoniji. Još mi rekla ovo: Turci su ženama rezali križeve (što su imale tetovirane) do kosti. Htjeli su "naše" žene ali ne i križeve. Selo Lendići.,.samo 27 hrvata i ona jedna od njih.
Intervju i fotografije: Lucija Đukić

tetoviranicovjek @ 20:35 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0

Croatian woman from Bosnia. Her name is Ana and she was born in village Rudo. Hrvatica Ana iz sela Ruda, Bosna- Fotografiju zabiljezio Marinko Slipac 9.8.2010. Novi Travnik
ANA (Anto Jurišić) ĆORIĆ
Rođena 1926.g. u naselju Ruda, a udala se u Djakoviće, sve u Novom Travniku.
Kao prognanica, sada nastanjena u Novom Travniku.
Za svoje ukrase kaže da su križevi i jelica. Ukrase joj tetovirala majka. Rečeno joj je da se ''bocanjem križa'' nekada branile katoličke cure od nasrtaja i otimanja od strane Turaka. Ovo je najljepši rad, na koji sam naišao u zadnje vrijeme, osobito u Novom Travniku.

Tea Mihaljević, 27.07.2014

tetoviranicovjek @ 20:29 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0

Na unutrašnjoj strani lijevog ručnog zgloba istetovirala sam znak križa po uzoru na tradicionalno sicanje koje je radila moja baka, njena majka i tako generacijama i stoljećima unatrag žene u našoj obitelj. Uz znak križa, moje su majke tetovirale i ime i godinu rođenja. (lokalitet: Zapadna Hercegovina). Za motiv tetovaže koju sam radila odabrala sam križ-granaš koji je karakterističan za područje Kraljeve Sutjeske, pa on predstavlja i moj protest protiv odnosa vladajuće politike prema tradiciji i povijesti našeg naroda. Protestujem protiv politike koja u zaborav stavlja i kraljevski Bobovac i tradiciju sicanja, a javni budžet i medijski prostor stavlja u službu znanstveno neutemeljnih teza o piramidama i faraonima na mjestima gdje su bile utvrde bosanskih kraljeva. Naš odnos prema prošlosti određuje našu sudbinu u budućnosti, pa se nadam da će i moja djeca nastaviti ovu tradiciju, Ivana Kešić, Sarajevo, 27.07.2014.


tetoviranicovjek @ 20:22 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0
ponedjeljak, srpanj 7, 2014
by Tatyana Kilinskaya


традиционные татуировки Боснии и Герцеговины, славянские татуировки

Известно сообщение арабского дипломата Ибн-Фадлана, о том, что он во время своего путешествия из Багдада в страну русов, расселившихся вдоль реки Волги, наблюдал у местных жителей татуировку от ногтей рук до шеи - изображения деревьев, фигур животных и иных знаков и символов. С распространением христианства обычай татуировки стал безжалостно искореняться, ибо рассматривался церковью как составная часть языческих обрядов.


В то время как культура славянской татуировки считается неизвестной или почти утраченной, в некоторых населенных Хорватами регионах Боснии и Герцеговины и по сей день можно нередко увидеть пожилых женщин (реже – мужчин), со следами орнамента на руках, внешней стороне ладоней, плечах, а иногда и на других частях тела. Не считая редких исключений, обычай нанесения татуировки принадлежит исключительно католической части народа Боснии и Герцеговины. Иногда обычай называют одним из элементов фольклора и обычным способом украшения тела. Так же он связан с дохристианскими верованиями народов балканского полуострова, этот обычай сыграл свою самую важную роль во времена османских завоеваний на Балканах.

Под нарастающим давлением османской исламизации по всему региону и вынужденных миграций населения, хорватские женщины покрывали свои тела различными узорами с крестами в попытке избежать османского плена, сохранить детей, и уберечься от насильного обращения в ислам через брак, а татуировки со временем стали одним из символов католицизма в многонациональной Боснии и способом показать свою принадлежность к хорватской культуре этой страны. Эти рисунки, избавиться от которых было почти невозможно, оставались на телах обращенных в ислам католиков, женщин, перешедших в ислам ради брака, тех, кто поменял религию по другим причинам, и навсегда оставляли след о католическом прошлом человека.


Татуировка была нужна во время турецкой оккупации Боснии и Герцеговины как защита детей от похищения. У многих были вытатуированы на коже имена или инициалы, чтобы их не смогли заставить забыть, кто они.

Хотя культ пережил оттоманских угнетателей, коммунистические власти сделали татуированных женщин объектом ненависти. Подвергаемые угрозам и рассматриваемые как преступники, они часто теряли работу из-за своей преданности вере. В конце концов они из страха перестали татуировать своих детей, и традиция эта к 1950-м годам практически вымерла.


Узоры наносились в один из дней Страстной недели и делал это самый молодой член семьи (или, если он отказывался – кто-нибудь постарше). При нанесении татуировки пользовались грубой иглой и особой смесью из древесного угля, сажи, меда и молока, взятого из груди кормящей матери, у которой уже есть родившийся мальчик. Орнамент сначала рисовали тупым концом иглы окунутым в чернила, а потом наносили саму татуировку и покрывали руку восковой или шелковой бумагой.


Орнаменты были похожи друг на друга и часто состояли из одних и тех же элементов. До запястья их местонахождение чаще всего определялось согласно правилам, а от запястья рисунок наносился уже произвольно. Всегда встречался обычный крест, который потом украшался точками и полукруглыми или прямыми линиями. Кресты так же можно было найти на других частях тела и рисовались они без какого-либо правила и значения – на лбу, плечах, «разбрасывались» по рукам. Менее христианские мотивы начинались после креста: чаще всего на верхней части рук рисовались круги, точки, линии и другие элементы узора. Полукруги-заборчики на тыльных сторонах ладони были открыты в сторону руки и так же окружались линиями, шариками на краях, узорами в виде веток, крестом или другими мотивами внутри. Далее рисовались линии с черточками и другими декоративными элементами вокруг них.

Именно эти мотивы и дают возможность предположить, что возможно обычай берет свое начало с еще дохристианских времен. Кроме упрощенного креста, который так же встречается и на татуировках древних орнаментальных мотивов различных племен Африки и Азии, на теле не встречалось почти никаких католических христианских узоров. Татуировка иногда наносилась как празднование перехода во взрослую жизнь, а церемония чаще всего происходила во время весеннего равноденствия – дня, имеющего важное значение в почти каждой религии на земле.


Католические или дохристианские, полустертые татуировки видны на руках пожилого населения боснийских хорватов и по сей день. Изменения, которые принесли с собой на Балканы времена османских завоеваний, дали этому обычаю свое назначение и возможно привели к росту этого культа, а татуировка надолго осталась способом представления своей религии и этнической принадлежности.

tetoviranicovjek @ 22:23 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0
nedjelja, srpanj 6, 2014

Od roðenja do smrti sve je bilo u znaku vjere. Kad  bi se dijete rodilo i babica mu povezala pupak, već drugi ili  treći dan njega je kuma, u pratnji jedne žene, u povojima  nosila na krštenje, čekajući pred masivnim vratima crkve  "ujaka" da je u crkvu uvede, i to kumče iz krstionice  poškropi i znamenuje svetom vodom i tako ga primi u  zajednicu kršćanskoga puka. Prodorni plač djeteta  označio bi da je crkva dobila još jednog novog člana. Taj  biljeg krštenja često bi se kasnije tetoviranjem neizbrisivo ubocao na ruku krštenika kako bi se znalo da je kršćanin i kada bi ga Turci odveli u janjičare ili prodali u ropstvo. (47)
(1802.-2002.) , Franjo Kristić

tetoviranicovjek @ 21:07 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0

Članak Kirsten Wright iz Melbournea, pod naslovom Recording 'a very particular  Custom': tattoos and the archive (Dokumentiranje 'vrlo specifičnog običaja':  tetovaže i arhivi), temelji se na istraživanju provedenom tijekom magistarskog studija  na Sveučilištu Monash. U članku se analiziraju dokumenti nastali u vezi s tetoviranjem  u 19. stoljeću, u kontekstu europskih istraživanja Polinezije, te prenošenja običaja tetoviranja na Zapad. Temeljem sačuvanih dokumenata, promišlja se o načinima  interpretacije i bilježenja domorodačkih običaja. S obzirom da tetovaže ne traju duže  od životnog vijeka njihovih vlasnika, arhivistički proces čuvanja ne odnosi se na same  tetovaže, već na njihove prikaze. Istražujuči načine na koje su podaci o tetovažama  arhivirani, smatraju kako se potpunije razumijevanje podataka o tetovažama može  postići novim načinima opisa i klasifikacije zapisa odnosno kategoriziranja sadržaja korištenjem tagova, tj. ključnih riječi u opisivanju.
Prikazi i recenzije / Reviews, Arh. vjesnik 54/2011

tetoviranicovjek @ 20:38 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0

I još bih nešto htjela nadodati... u svezi tog četiristotine godišnjeg turskog jarma u tim krajevima. Kao mala primijetila sam da moja baka, strina, tete sve imaju istetoviran križ na ruci.. i svoje ime ispisano na ruci.. ( Jele, Ruža, Kata)...plava boja.. prava tetovaža.
Otkrile su mi da je to stara tradicija, još iz turskog doba, a služila je kao zaštita od Turaka... koji su u to doba , posebno spahije- koji su sebi dali privilegiju obeščašastiti katoličku mladenku prije nego što dođe u kontakt sa svojim suprugom, pred Bogom vjenčanu sa svojim mužem--- strahota. Pričalo se da su se mnoge katoličke mladenke radije ubile, nego dopustile takvo obeščašćivanje. Stoga su se štitile križem, kažu da je iz toga nastala ona stara izreka -Bježi ko' nekrst od križa!

tetoviranicovjek @ 19:49 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0

Kroz narodnu predaju kružile su mnoge tužne priče veličajući djevojačko poštenje i zavjet čistoće. Putujući kroz Hercegovinu u franjevačkom samostanu naišao sam na predaju kako katolički puk Rame čuva sjećanje na djevojku Divu Grabovčevu koju je ubio razulareni turski plemić jer se oduprijela njegovoj pohoti.

Martirologij franjevačkog samostana na Šćitu nije zabilježio Divinu smrt, no kako puk Rame štuje Gospu od Milosti (danas Gospu Sinjsku), providnost je htjela da naš poznati arheolog Ćiro Truhelka otkrije Divin usamljeni grob na Kedžari usred Vran planine 20 kilometara od Šćita. Truhelka je znanstveno potvrdio pučku predaju o mladoj djevojci Divi iz vremena turske okupacije te je napisao pripovijetku “Djevojački grob”.

U pjesmi Marka Perkovića Thompsona možemo čuti stihove o Divi Grabovčevoj u kojima od zaborava čuva sjećanje na mladu krasoticu.

No, kako turska pošast nije zaobišla ni Slavoniju, sličnu predaju sam čuo i u Požegi. Smederevski sandžak-beg Mehmed-beg Jahjapašić 1536. godine dobio je zadaću da zauzme Požegu i okolicu. Cilj je ostvario s islamskom vojskom. Zauzeo je grad i tvrđavu te je postavio brojnu posadu i zapovjednika.

Kršćani su već patili pod jarmom svojih vlastelina, a kad su potpali pod tursku vlast stanje je postalo neizdrživo pa se dio njih zbog pogodnosti i uživanja povlastica odlučio prijeći na islam.

Mehmed-beg bio je poznat po svojoj okrutnosti i kao gorljivi protivnik kršćana. Narod ga je zvao Krvavi Mehmed. Sjekao je noseve i uši zarobljenicima, uprezao mladiće u kola u kojima se vozio te ih je mučio na razne načine. Jednom prigodom po svom sinu Arslanu poslao je padišahu brojne zarobljenike. Sulejmanu se svidjelo kako je Arslan-paša pred Divan doveo stotine okovanih ljudi te mu je za nagradu dao požeški sandžak. Dio prema Dubrovačkoj ulici i danas zovu Arslanovci.

Običaj je bio da se begu dovedu mlade djevojke, čak ako zaželi i buduće mladenke. Mnogi su tada vjenčavali i malodobnu djecu kako ne bi postala meta pohotnih begova. U Bosni je bio običaj da roditelji svojoj ženskoj djeci na ruke i čelo tetoviraju znak križa u nadi da će biti pošteđene.

Požeškom Arslan-agi posebno se svidjela krasotica Zorka te je odlučio da bude njegova. Majka Sara gorljivo je branila kćer pa ju je Arslan-aga dao ubiti, dok je Zorku odveo sa sobom, no ona mu je uspjela pobjeći. Nije dugo vremena prošlo, Arslan-aga je uhvatio Zorku i podigao turski jatagan s namjerom da je usmrti. Predaja kaže da ga je Zorka povukla sa sobom u vir Orljave.

Da priča ima kontinuitet govori i podatak kako je krajem 19. stoljeća Petar Marković u Vijencu napisao stihove o Sari i Zorki. Danas nas na tu priču podsjeća skulptura Tatjane Kostanjević koja se nalazi u Babinom Viru.

Nije čudno što se graničarski časnik Matija Antun Relković u svom poznatom djelu Satir iliti divji čovik pisan u narodnom desetercu bori protiv turskih skula (loših običaja) koje i danas kao aveti prošlosti vise nad nama u riječima, kulturi i običajima.

tetoviranicovjek @ 19:30 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 0
petak, srpanj 4, 2014

Postcard from Bosnia

GRACANICA, Bosnia—Even to me, an unctuous parishioner, making a pilgrimage has always seemed to be a phenomenal waste of time. Upon hearing that the Pope was coming to Bosnia, I was at first apprehensive. The logistics of seeing the Holy Father are not simple, and he had decided to speak in Banja Luka, the capital of the Republika Srpska, a locale markedly hostile to Catholics and Muslims in Bosnia.

Nevertheless, I was possessed to pack my bags. This element of journeying in Bosnia I still haven’t gotten down to a tee. Sunscreen, toilet paper, deodorant—none of these things found their way into my backpack. What did were two Bosnian-English dictionaries and The Mystery of Capital.

Planning routes is impossible here as well. Gracanica is, more or less, my homebase—a Muslim-dominated town about five minutes from the Serb-controlled area of Bosnia. But in order to get to Banja Luka and the Pope, not even the most innocuous parishioner can follow the straight-shot from Gracanica. Instead, a side-trip to find some Catholic traveling companions is necessary; in this case, I was told about the existence of a hold-out cove in nearby Dubrave. Arriving outside the supposed Franciscan monastery here, one can see a faint yellow line surrounding the area’s famed oak trees, denoting the presence of a mine field.

What I found in Dubrave was not a monastery at all, but rather a sordid collection of hold-over clerics from the war. Two men with sagging faces (although they couldn’t have been more than 30 years old) and two elderly nuns whose arms were tattooed with crosses greeted me at the door. “Holy Christ,” I thought instinctively, partaking in their vacant stares, not quite realizing the irony of this thought amidst the devotional community of Dubrave.

“Bog,” I greeted my holy receivers, a Croatian greeting that literally means, “God.”

“Bog,” one beckoned back, filled with such a lack of spirit that he might as well have said “nothing” or “potato.”

The conversation was stilted. What I’d stumbled upon was an end-of-the-road hideaway in an area now controlled by Bosnian Muslims. Perhaps this small Catholic cell had been here during the ethnic cleansing, or maybe they were shuffled here thereafter—either way, this was the Church’s frontier crew, antisocial monstrosities of the kind created by a millenium-plus of facing repression with dogged determination.

It was only after an hour of broken dialogue, explanations that I had never seen the Pope and a coyness I’d been saving for just such an occasion that I won their affection, embodied within a meek (that’s one value these Papists had down) offering of stock and chivas.

This strange group gave me a so-called “ticket” (which was little more than an illegible message on pink stationery) and directed me to a contact in  the multi-ethnic town of Tuzla. There I found a man named Fra Peter in the postmodern hellishness of Tuzla’s Franciscan stronghold, a concrete building replete with bomb-proof glass and giant iron gates that obscure passers-by’s view of the many statues of St. Francis, Mary and Jesus inside the immaculate garden. The scribbles-on-pink won me a proper ticket from him, and at 2 a.m., I returned to the monastery, which was even more spooky at night, only to encounter 350 Catholics running about, scaring the hell out of Tuzla’s many drunks and greeting one another in a language they differentiate from Bosnian—though their lexicons are virtually identical apart from about 20 words (“instead of ‘Bog,’ it’s ‘Allah,’” one explained with total sobriety)—as they tried to organize themselves and board buses to the Mass.

Tired and desparate, I tried to find a seat on one of the buses, helplessly flailing my “Pope ticket” at the Croats, who kept rebuffing me from buses that were reserved for one or another organization. Finally, I did find a bus, sat myself next to a 70-year-old woman who could not stop talking about “Papa,” and spent seven hours unconscious en route to Banja Luka.

The Mass was good. Nothing more can be said about this segment of the voyage. It was wholesome, rife with folk songs as well as Westernized neo-Christian rock. The Pope drove around for a good while in the Popemobile; and by hook or by crook, each Catholic punk rocker willing to use his or her elbows was able to see him close-up, in the flesh: Ivana Pavla Deuce.

And soon after this elderly man was done speaking and a few ambulances were dispatched to resuscitate the chosen few who couldn’t handle the heat, a rush of people flowed from the massive green. Far from a silent, self-reflective end to a mass, the “Croats” (really, they are Bosnians per their nationality, though they call themselves Croats) began singing loud Catholic folk music, waving red-and-white checkerboard flags, wearing shirts of the same colors, passing close to Serb military men who didn’t look at all amused by these outbursts. The same flag remembered largely as the symbol of Croatia’s fascist regime during World War II, under which proper Croats made refugees out of some 300,000 Serbs less than 100 miles away, was now being waved in the faces of Bosnian Serbs, whose reputation is well-publicized in America and elsewhere courtesy of Slobodan Milosevic, Radovan Karadzic and their ilk.

That said, my return to Gracanica was not without some cool Papal loot including a guidebook to Catholicism in Bosnian, a bona fide Bosnian flag and a bright yellow hat decorated with pictures of the Pope. Sunny as it was, I thought about wearing this hat into Gracanica before realizing the emblem would not likely sit well in a town filled with minarets, where vandalizing the old Orthodox Church is a favorite area hobby. The Pope had come on a mission of reconciliation and peace. What I’d seen were fervored Catholic Bosnians waving Croatian flags, a great deal of frustrated Serbs in military regalia and a nation that was on the whole much less excited than me about seeing John Paul II.

Travis R. Kavulla ’06 is a history concentrator in Mather House. While not trailing the Popemobile, he can be found traipsing around Bosnia begging locals for toilet paper in the name of Bog.

tetoviranicovjek @ 13:35 |Komentiraj | Komentari: 3 | Prikaži komentare
Nema zapisa.